Residential Installation -
Your residential softener's resin tank contains thousands of tiny resin beads. These beads hold minute electronically charged ions. When freshly regenerated, the beads are full of sodium ions from softening salt. As hard water passes through your softener, the hard water ions of calcium and magnesium are attracted to the resin beads. There, ions of sodium are exchanged for the hard water ions. The result is soft water.
After several days, the beads become full of calcium and magnesium ions and can no longer soften water. When your softener regenerates again, the beads are replenished with more sodium ions, leaving you with softer water.
Commercial Installation -
Iron and manganese removal followed by tannin removal followed by Ph correction. Design flow rate is 70 gallons per minute in this particular installation. Piping is 304 Sch-10 stainless steel welded pipe.